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Many males may have concerns about the size or appearance of their penis from time to time. People may also wonder how much genetics affects penis size. We address these and other factors that play a role in determining penis size here. While it is true that people can consider penis size to be a genetic trait, many other factors impact penis size. These factors include hormones, nutrition, and diet.
In this article, we explore factors that affect penis size, average penis length, and the risks of penis enlargement methods. Humans inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent. Multiple genes make up chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Of these, there are 22 autosomes and one set of sex chromosomes. Males inherit one Y chromosome from their male parent and one X chromosome from their female parent. Females inherit two X chromosomes, one from each parent.
The Y chromosome determines the development of the penis and testes but not necessarily penis size or girth. These characteristics may be dependent on the X chromosome. The X chromosone contains —1, geneswhereas the Y chromosome houses only about 70— genes. This difference may explain why penis size varies among siblings with the same biological parents. Genetic mutations may also affect penis size and appearance as well as other physical characteristics. While quite rare, genetic conditions sometimes influence penis size include Kallmann syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. Just as estrogen and progesterone affect female sexual characteristics, such as breasts, hips, Try my asian dick the older better fat storage, male sex hormones, or androgens, contribute to testicular and penile growth.
During puberty, the pituitary gland produces more luteinizing hormone LH and follicle-stimulating hormone FSH. LH promotes testosterone production in the Leydig cells of the testicles, and FSH promotes sperm production. Variations in testosterone levels during pregnancy may cause penile abnormalities. For example, the mother may not produce enough human chorionic gonadotrophin hCG hormone.
The hCG hormone stimulates testosterone development in the fetus. Rare conditions, such as 5 alpha reductase deficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasiaalso affect testosterone levels and may affect genital appearance. This response is called androgen insensitivity. When any of these hormonal issues arise, the penis of a male fetus may not develop in the usual way. Environmental pollutants, such as pesticides, plasticizers, and other chemicals, may have a negative effect on penis size. These chemicals may act as endocrine disruptors and impact gene and hormone expression.
Epigenetics is a growing area of science investigating how the environment may affect gene expression. Researchers believe epigenetics plays a role in development and disease. They suspect it may influence hormone function and have a role in hormone disorders. Studies in and both suggest that prenatal exposure to chemicals, such as phthalates, negatively impacts the genital development of male newborns. A study also suggests that epigenetic-associated dietary influences may slow genital progression in adolescent boys. Malnutrition in the womb and throughout life may impact hormones and affect growth and development.
Furthermore, malnutrition in adolescence, as is seen in anorexia or bulimia, can delay normal puberty. While individuals undergoing delayed puberty typically catch up eventually, symptoms of delayed puberty include a smaller penis and testicles. Genetics are the strongest predictors of penis size. However, factors, such as body fat and the presence or absence of pubic hair, can make the penis appear larger or smaller without affecting its true size. When exposed to cold temperatures, the blood vessels in the penis constrict.
This physiological reaction causes the penis to shrink temporarily. Numerous myths about what factors determine penis size often lead to unnecessary stress and anxiety in people of all genders and ages.
Thus, the following do not affect penis size or appearance:. The penis grows gradually after birth. However, the most ificant growth occurs during pubertyor between years of age. Puberty usually begins in males between 9. A penis typically reaches its maximum length and girth when a person is 18 or 19 years old. However, some people experience penile growth well into their early 20s. According to a review of 20 studies with a total of 15, males, the average penis length is:. Another article reported average erect penile dimensions based on the self-measurements obtained from 1, men.
The average erect penis length was The researchers deemed the were fairly consistent with prior research. The penis enlargement or male enhancement industry claims that enlargement procedures, vacuum devices, pills, and creams increase penis size. However, there is limited research for many of these methods, and they may come with serious risks. The majority of people seeking penis enlargement have average-sized penises, meaning that they are of adequate size for sexual activity and urination.
The Urology Care Foundation only recommends penis enhancement surgery for people with a rare condition called micropenis where a penis is two or more standard deviations below the average size. The American Urological Association states that there is not enough high-quality evidence to support the safety or efficacy of penile augmentation surgery. Genetics plays a substantial role in determining penis size. However, other factors, such as hormones, the environment, and nutrition, can affect penis size. However, it is important to note that most people fall into the normal range of penis sizes.
A person should speak with a doctor if they are concerned about the size or appearance of their penis. What is considered a thin penis, and does size matter? Read on to discover if size is relevant, tips for better sex, and penis enlargement methods. Micropenis refers to an abnormally small penis. Hormonal and genetic factors during birth can cause micropenis. In this article, we look at the…. A look at penis shrinkage, which is the decrease in penis size.
Included is detail on why it happens, when to see a doctor, and what is normal. What factors affect the size of a penis? Genetics Other factors Factors that do not affect size Penis growth Average penis size Risks of trying to increase size Summary Many males may have concerns about the size or appearance of their penis from time to time. Share on Pinterest Genetics, hormones, nutrition, and diet can all affect penis size. Other factors that affect size. Factors that do not affect size. When does the penis start and stop growing?
Average penis size. Risks of trying to increase size. CoronaVac vaccine shows Could 'deer mucus' be a medicine of the future? Related Coverage. Do penis enlargement methods work? Medically reviewed by Daniel Murrell, MD. What to know about micropenis Micropenis refers to an abnormally small penis. What is penis shrinkage and why does it happen? Medically reviewed by Alana Biggers, M.Try my asian dick the older better
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