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Introduction: This study is aimed at gaining more insight into the effects of camera-surveillance on behavior. First, we explore the effect of presenting the camera as the medium through which an intimidating authority watches the participant. Second, we test the effect of presenting the camera as being a neutral, non-intimidating viewer. Third, we investigate the effect of watching oneself via a camera. In contrast to most studies on camera surveillance, we will conduct our experiments in an indoor setting.
Methods: In this experiment participated 86 students, randomly distributed over four conditions: three different ways of framing the camera presence, plus a control condition. Our main dependent variables were various kinds of cheating and pro-social behavior. We established the participant's relevant personality traits using a classification tree. We did not find ificant effects of camera surveillance on pro-social behavior.
Looking at personality traits, we found an indication that people with an internal locus of control are more inclined to cheat when there is no camera present compared to people with an external locus of control. However, the effects of our manipulations were stronger.
Conclusion: Our findings support the idea that the framing of a camera's presence does indeed influence cheating behavior, adding to the preventive effects of camera-surveillance. Additionally, this study provides some valuable insights into the influence of camera presence on behavior in general. Camera surveillance is widely used in western countries, and its use is ever increasing.
Cameras are often placed as a means to ensure that criminals and vandals are easier to trace, but according to Welsh and Farringtoncamera surveillance could also be seen as an instrument of situational crime prevention. The question is, however, to what extent the presence of cameras truly has a preventive effect on undesirable behavior, and whether a possible preventive effect would also apply to camera surveillance in different environmental situations, specifically in indoor settings.
Various studies have also shown that the preventive effect of cameras on undesirable and criminal behavior is not straightforward. For example, the meta-analyses of Welsh and Farringtonshow divergent i. These meta-analyses show that the environmental context is an important factor to reckon with; for example, camera surveillance seems more effective in car parks compared to other settings such as town centers and public housing communities.
Studying how and why camera surveillance works and whether the presentation of, and notifications about, the camera surveillance influences its effectiveness might give more insight in the reasons why these meta-analyses show such a wide range of. In the current research we will focus on the communications surrounding camera surveillance, aimed at informing the public about the camera's purpose. Framing of camera surveillance is often implemented by s or posters informing the public about the presence of surveillance cameras, or Cheating wives in Pine level AL voice messages; for instance at train or metro stations.
These s, posters or messages may differ on various aspects e. For instance, age may stress the notion of being watched by an authority in an intimidating manner, or it may rather convey friendliness or helpfulness and stress the notion that CCTV is there for civilian safety. Accordingly, one way of furthering insights into the effectiveness of camera surveillance might involve differentiation between different ways in which CCTV is framed to the public.
Surprisingly, the influence of the framing of camera surveillance on the effectiveness of camera surveillance in influencing undesirable behavior has not been researched as of yet, yet it could be a valid explanation for the pronounced differences found in the effectiveness of CCTV in different studies. In the current study we examine three types of framing originating from different theoretical perspectives in a controlled experimental setting.
As such, we explore and integrate theories from criminology with theories from social and environmental psychology.
Additionally, we will focus on both interpersonal and intrapersonal processes to gain further insights into effects of camera presence and framing thereof on behavior. In this study we will focus our examination on indoor settings.
As mentioned before, many studies on the effectiveness of camera surveillance are conducted in outside, public spaces see Welsh and Farrington, However, in recent years, cameras are also increasingly used in indoor settings such as shops, casinos, public spaces, governmental institutions, office environments and educational settings.
In these type of settings, people often perform tasks or activities where cheating might occur e.
Importantly, the presence of camera surveillance in indoor environments might influence such unwarranted types of behavior. Additionally, people often interact and assist each other in these types of settings, and the presence of the watching eye of a camera might have an effect on pro-social behavior too.
However, as of yet, research assessing effects of CCTV in indoor areas on these types of behavior is scarce. A notable use of indoor camera surveillance is within the home of students enrolled in online courses, in order to prevent cheating during electronic exams Eisenberg, In fact, some online Cheating wives in Pine level AL institutions, like Coursera, offer courses taught by professors from various prestigious universities through which students can earn actual college credits.
This raises the question how accurate the of electronic tests are when they are taken from the student's home. There are several methods of preventing cheating at electronic exams, including camera feeds watched remotely, capturing and streaming the screen of the students, and recording keystrokes and mouse clicks Sarrayrih and Ilyas, ; Bawarith et al.
When contemplating differences between indoor settings including office buildings or in family home settings and outdoor surveillance e. That is, people would feel more like they are being watched or observed in indoor environments compared to outdoor environments, which could reduce the preventive effect of camera surveillance often attributed to this feeling of being watched. Arguably and of particular relevance to the current research such perceptions and feelings are dependent on how camera presence is framed by means of notifications or information messages accompanying CCTV.
Manipulating the context of the camera surveillance could increase its effectiveness. Additionally, implementing and manipulating the notifications accompanying the presence of the cameras is more straightforward and more noticeable in an indoor setting than in an outdoor setting.
In addition to preventing crimes such as shoplifting or vandalism, in indoor settings, smaller but nonetheless troubling crimes such as cheating and fraud e. In the current undertaking we will therefore study effects of camera surveillance on cheating and occurrences of pro-social behaviors.
Central to this research is the notion that cheating can be seen as a type of dishonest behavior to further selfish goals. Cheating has many parallels to other types of dishonest behavior: cheating is immoral, is being frowned upon by others, and an offender will be sanctioned when caught Tittle and Rowe, In our study, participants could earn extra money dishonestly if they decided to cheat, so in this case cheating could be seen as a variant of stealing. As for pro-social behavior, three different types of behavior were studied. We used the cleaning up of their own trash, which has been studied extensively before, to be able to compare our findings with other studies.
Additionally, we used a voluntary donation for a good cause, because charitable giving has also been used ly as a measure of pro-social behavior e. Finally, we studied helping behavior by investigating the extent to which participants helped out the experimenter with picking up dropped items from the floor after a minor mishap a similar measure as used in Twenge et al.
Before presenting further details of this study, we will first elaborate on the processes underlying camera surveillance, drawing both from criminal and psychological frameworks. While criminological theories focus mainly on the prevention of criminal behaviors such as vandalism and theft, most psychological theories assume a broader spectrum of behavior that might be influenced by the presence of cameras. Expanding on this reasoning, camera presence could affect both undesired behavior as well as desired, pro-social behavior.
In the current study we will examine various types of cheating in addition to three different types of pro-social helping behavior; namely cleaning one's trash, helping another person and donating to a charity. The first approach we take in investigating how camera surveillance can affect behavior focuses mainly on the prevention of undesired behavior, and is based on the Rational Choice perspective of Clarke and Felson, also see Cornish and Clarke,Cheating wives in Pine level AL This criminological perspective assumes that most criminal behavior is the result of a rational assessment of the costs and benefits of a certain action.
Based on that perspective, people would only engage in deviant behavior when the benefits outweigh the costs Cornish and Clarke,; Braga, Since the presence of security cameras enhances the risk of being caught, this should lead to a decline in deviant behavior. This consideration is also evident in the Routine Activity Theory Cohen and Felson, ; Felson, which is a derivative of the Rational Choice perspective. The Routine Activity Theory states that one of the three factors that could prevent the occurrence of a criminal incident is the presence of a capable guardian.
According to the Social Control Theory Hirschi,which is a complementary approach, this capable guardian should be perceived as an authority figure who has the ability to punish, thus placing strong emphasis on the probability of detection and the risk of punishment. Many studies do indeed suggest that deterrence caused by the threat of punishment is an important factor in reducing crime e. The effect of an authority watching is demonstrated in a study by Sigelman and Sigelmanwhich shows that the presence of an uniformed authority figure ificantly decreases rates of traffic violations.
The presence of a security camera could fulfill the role of a guardian, since camera surveillance is a channel through which authority figures could monitor actions or events unfolding, leading to increased risk of detection and punishment. Levine did indeed state in his study on the effects of security cameras on public behavior that -in order for camera surveillance to be effective- people should 1 be aware they are being monitored, 2 know who is watching, and 3 know which types of behaviors are punishable.
Following this line of reasoning, it is thus important that camera surveillance is salient, and framed in such a way so that people have the impression that an authority figure is watching, who has the ability to punish deviant behavior. Interestingly, Van Bommel et al. This implies that individuals become less helpful in the presence of authoritative camera surveillance. Together, this le to the following hypotheses:. Compared to a control situation without camera presence, both cheating 1a and pro-social behavior 1b will be discouraged when camera surveillance is presented in a salient and intimidating manner, enhancing the notice of a watchful authority capable of punishment.
The second approach we take in order to explore how camera surveillance might influence behavior is based on psychological theories, mostly focusing on pro-social behavior and interpersonal processes. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the presence of others real, anticipated or imagined may induce the feeling of being evaluated, encouraging self-evaluation and impression-management Leary and Kowalski,which might result in behavior adjustments with the aim of presenting a socially-desirable image to the outside world.
A typical category of norm-congruent behavior that is likely to carry away others' approval, is pro-social behavior Kallgren et al. Govern and Marsch do indeed state that camera presence might encourage people to represent themselves well to an audience, presumably because a watchful eye increases self-awareness in their study. Similarily, Van Rompay et al.
Findings from their study indeed showed that people were more willing to assist others when a camera was present and visible. Further underscoring the importance of impression management behaviors in relation to camera surveillance, findings further showed that this effect only surfaced for people with a strong need for the approval of others, and only in relation to behaviors that can actually be observed by cameras.
Thus, in addition to stimulating pro-social behavior, people intent on generating a positive image to the outside world would most likely show less undesired behavior as well. This le to the following hypotheses:. The third line of reasoning in which cameras could influence behavior focuses on interpersonal processes. This approach questions whether the probability of detection or the possibility of evaluation by others is actually an essential ingredient for behavioral change to occur. That is, research by Bateson et al.
Specifically, when a picture of eyes was depicted in a university cafeteria compared to a picture of flowersa larger percentage of people paid for their drinks i. Interestingly, Research by Govern and Marsch shows that not just the presence of a camera can make participants more self-aware, but that similar effects occur when participants are seated in front of a mirror and hence, when there is no one watching but the participants themselves. Kallgren et al. In other words, focus on the self-image by means of mirrors or monitors can result in a stronger focus on norms and values present in the individual self Duval and Wicklund, ; Carver and Scheier, Wicklund and Duval call this process self-evaluation, where people being observed reflect on their behavior and subject it to their personal norms and values, resulting in more normative behavior.
The present study will explore the possibility that watching oneself on a monitor makes participants more aware of their behavior and more focused on complying to existing or personal norms and values, even without the suggested presence of anyone who could evaluate behavior.
Compared to a control situation without monitor, watching oneself on a monitor should decrease cheating behavior 3a and enhance pro-social behavior 3b. This condition is distinct from the two other camera conditions in respect that participant get direct feedback from the image, instead of being confronted with a stationary surveillance camera.
This makes this condition comparable to studies using mirrors, as well as to the other camera conditions we use in this study, since we did use a camera in our monitor setup. One reason for this is that these psychological processes may not necessarily take place on a conscious level and are therefore difficult to capture with Cheating wives in Pine level AL explicit questionnaire e. Therefore, researchers have argued that psychological mechanisms might best be uncovered by examining the impact of meaningful moderating variables, by measuring or manipulating them i.
An example of this methodology can be seen in the study by Greenberg et al. In the current study we will follow this line of reasoning by including three personality traits that may interact with the manner in which the presence of a camera or monitor is presented. It thus seems feasible that the suggestion of authority influences people with an external LOC more strongly compared to people with an internal LOC.
Also, some people might be more sensitive to cues of being watched or being evaluated. Van Rompay et al. Self-monitoring is conceptually close to NA. SM describes to which extent people are willing to adapt their behavior in order to get the approval of others Gangestad and Snyder, So, participants who score high for NA or SM are expected to be more inclined to behave themselves properly in front of cameras.
Finally, and as discussed before, personal norms and values might be activated by means of self-evaluation induced by seeing oneselfand some personality traits might play a role in the effect of cameras and self-focus on behavior. If the presence of a camera or monitor activates personal norms, it is likely that the effect of SVO on actual behavior will be stronger in these conditions.
As stated in the introduction, we have three lines of reasoning in which behavior could be influenced by the way a camera or a monitor is presented in the environment. We wanted to put these lines of reasoning to the test in a single experiment so we would be able to evaluate each method in the same context. In the three conditions where a camera was present, each participant received a form they needed to which outlined the purpose of the camera in the room.Cheating wives in Pine level AL
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